What Homeowners Must Know About Mortgage Forbearance

Tags

, , ,

As the coronavirus began sweeping through the country in March, many states issued shut-down orders for businesses, putting as many as 40 million people out of work by May. On March 27, Congress passed the CARES Act to offer economic relief to those affected by the shut-downs, expanding unemployment benefits and offering mortgage forbearance to homeowners with mortgages backed or insured by the federal government, including Freddie Mac, Fannie Mae, VA and FHA.

Under the CARES Act, homeowners can ask for forbearance from their mortgage servicer and suspend payments for up to 12 months. Approximately 4.3 million homeowners have requested forbearance since the program began, although, over the last several months, the number of people with mortgage loans in forbearance has continued to drop, decreasing to 3.4 million in the last week of September, according to the Mortgage Bankers Association.

Now, servicers are doing the hard work of helping borrowers as they exit forbearance with payment deferral/partial claim plans, lump-sum payments and other modifications.

“The share of loans in forbearance continues to decline and is now at a level not seen since mid-April,” said Mike Fratantoni, MBA’s senior vice president and chief economist. “Many homeowners with GSE loans are exiting forbearance into a deferral plan and resuming their original mortgage payment, but waiting to pay the forborne amount until the end of the loan.”

What is mortgage forbearance?
Forbearance is the temporary postponement of mortgage payments negotiated between a borrower and lender for repayment relief. This does not mean the loan is forgiven, rather, payments are deferred until the end of the forbearance period.

How do I request mortgage forbearance?
To request mortgage relief under the CARES Act there are two options:

You can phone your loan servicer directly. Your servicer is the company that you send your mortgage payments to each month and the number should be available on your payment statement or online.

You can write and send a hardship letter affirming that you are enduring financial distress brought about by COVID-19. This creates a written record that you are pursuing forbearance protection. Letters may be emailed, faxed, or physically mailed to your mortgage servicer.

Will I need to repay my missed mortgage payments in one lump sum?
No, though that is an option if you have the financial capability and would like to. Otherwise, you can:

Negotiate a payment plan, that will make upcoming payments slightly larger

Modify the existing loan, which may include a reduction of interest rates, an extended loan term or both.

How does my mortgage transition into forbearance?
If your servicer approves your request, you will be provided a forbearance agreement outlining the terms. During the forbearance period, the servicer must not initiate or continue with foreclosure proceedings.

How does it transition out?
Before the end of your forbearance period, your servicer should reach out to you to negotiate end of forbearance terms for repayment and possible extensions in certain situations, or a relief or workout option following forbearance.

Are there eligibility requirements?
Yes, if you have experienced job loss, reduced income, illness or other issues related to COVID-19 you could be eligible for forbearance.

Can the forbearance be extended and for how long?
Yes, under the CARES Act, if you have a federally backed mortgage, you can request an extension of the forbearance for up to an additional 180 days.

What is payment deferral?
An option where the delinquent amounts are deferred and will become due later (i.e., mortgage maturity date, payoff, refinance, etc.). The deferred amount creates a non-interest-bearing forborne balance.

What do I do if my forbearance plan is coming to an end?
Your servicer should contact you prior to the end of your forbearance plan to discuss options for bringing the mortgage current. However, you can contact them to begin this discussion and determine the best option for you, based on your individual circumstances.

Post-Forbearance Options

How do I bring my mortgage current after my forbearance plan ends?
If you have the financial capacity, the most desirable option is to do a reinstatement or repayment plan. Reinstatement is the act of restoring a delinquent mortgage to current status. A repayment plan is when the homeowner pays the regular monthly payments plus an additional agreed upon amount in repayment of the delinquency for a period of time. However, there are additional options, including deferring missed payments until the end of the loan (payment deferral), payment relief options if needed (loan modification) or other alternatives.

Is it possible to do a partial reinstatement with a repayment plan after my forbearance plan ends?
Yes.

What are my options after forbearance if I can’t afford a reinstatement or repayment plan?
Home retention options may include payment deferral or a loan modification. For COVID-19 related hardships, there are additional flexibilities for these options. If homeownership is no longer affordable, there are options to exit the home without facing the costly impacts of foreclosure, including a short sale or deed-in-lieu.

What is a loan modification?
An option for homeowners who can no longer afford their pre-forbearance payment. For example, a Freddie Mac Flex Modification, targets a 20% payment reduction by extending the mortgage term to 40 years, reducing the interest rate (if applicable) and creating a forborne balance (if applicable).

If I had a loan modification in the past, is another loan modification an option after my forbearance plan ends?
You may be eligible for another loan modification, pending no eligibility restrictions. Your servicer will confirm your eligibility.

When Homeowner’s good faith attempts to amicably work with the Bank in order to resolve the issue fails;

Home owners should wake up TODAY! before it’s too late by mustering enough courage for “Pro Se” Litigation (Self Representation – Do it Yourself) against the Lender – for Mortgage Fraud and other State and Federal law violations using foreclosure defense package found at https://fightforeclosure.net/foreclosure-defense-package/ “Pro Se” litigation will allow Homeowners to preserved their home equity, saves Attorneys fees by doing it “Pro Se” and pursuing a litigation for Mortgage Fraud, Unjust Enrichment, Quiet Title and Slander of Title; among other causes of action. This option allow the homeowner to stay in their home for 3-5 years for FREE without making a red cent in mortgage payment, until the “Pretender Lender” loses a fortune in litigation costs to high priced Attorneys which will force the “Pretender Lender” to early settlement in order to modify the loan; reducing principal and interest in order to arrive at a decent figure of the monthly amount the struggling homeowner could afford to pay.

If you find yourself in an unfortunate situation of losing or about to lose your home to wrongful fraudulent foreclosure, and need a complete package that will show you step-by-step litigation solutions helping you challenge these fraudsters and ultimately saving your home from foreclosure either through loan modification or “Pro Se” litigation visit: https://fightforeclosure.net/foreclosure-defense-package/

If you have received a Notice of Default “NOD”, take a deep breath, as this the time to start the FIGHT! and Protect your EQUITY!

If you do Nothing, you will see the WRONG parties WITHOUT standing STEAL your home right under your nose, and by the time you realize it, it might be too late! If your property has been foreclosed, use the available options on our package to reverse already foreclosed home and reclaim your most prized possession! You can do it by yourself! START Today — STOP Foreclosure Tomorrow!

If you are a homeowner already in Chapter 13 Bankruptcy and needs to proceed with Adversary Proceeding to challenge the validity of Security Interest or Lien on your home, Our Adversary Proceeding package may be just what you need.

Cosigning A Mortgage Loan: What Both Parties Need To Know

Tags

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

If you have  but still want to get a mortgage, adding a nonoccupant co-client to your loan can help convince lenders to give you a loan. But the decision to co-sign on a loan or add a co-signer to your loan isn’t one you should make without knowing all the facts.

Today, we’re looking at what it means to be a nonoccupant co-client on a mortgage loan. We’ll show you what co-signing means and when it’s beneficial. We’ll also introduce you to the drawbacks of being a nonoccupant co-client as well as some of your other options as a borrower.

Co-Signing A Mortgage Loan: A Look At The Process

Imagine you want to buy a home with a mortgage loan, but you have bad credit.

When you apply for preapproval, you find that lenders don’t give you the best interest rates. You may even have a hard time getting approval at all due to your credit score. 

You know that your mother has a credit score of 800, so you ask her to become a nonoccupant co-client on your loan application. She agrees and signs her name alongside yours on your applications.

Suddenly, you’re a much more appealing candidate for a mortgage. The lender considers both your income and your mother’s income when they look at your application.

They can also now pursue your mother for any payments you miss. Because the lender considers your mother’s finances, income, debt and credit when they look at your application, they decide to approve you for your loan.

From here, your mortgage loan generally functions the same way it would if you were the only person on the loan. You make a monthly premium payment every month to cover your principal, interest, taxes and insurance and you enjoy your home.

However, the lender may hold the nonoccupant co-client responsible if you miss a payment. This means your lender has the right to take your mother to court over your missed payments.

Co-signing isn’t just for mortgage loans. You may have a co-signer on personal loans, student loans and auto loans as well.

Whether or not you can have a nonoccupant co-client depends on the type of loan you take out. Nonoccupant co-clients are most common on two specific types of mortgages: conventional loans and FHA loans. Let’s take a look at the limitations for both types of loans.

Co-Signing A Mortgage Loan: A Look At The Process

Imagine you want to buy a home with a mortgage loan, but you have bad credit.

When you apply for preapproval, you find that lenders don’t give you the best interest rates. You may even have a hard time getting approval at all due to your credit score. 

You know that your mother has a credit score of 800, so you ask her to become a nonoccupant co-client on your loan application. She agrees and signs her name alongside yours on your applications.

Suddenly, you’re a much more appealing candidate for a mortgage. The lender considers both your income and your mother’s income when they look at your application.

They can also now pursue your mother for any payments you miss. Because the lender considers your mother’s finances, income, debt and credit when they look at your application, they decide to approve you for your loan.

From here, your mortgage loan generally functions the same way it would if you were the only person on the loan. You make a monthly premium payment every month to cover your principal, interest, taxes and insurance and you enjoy your home.

However, the lender may hold the nonoccupant co-client responsible if you miss a payment. This means your lender has the right to take your mother to court over your missed payments.

Co-signing isn’t just for mortgage loans. You may have a co-signer on personal loans, student loans and auto loans as well.

Whether or not you can have a nonoccupant co-client depends on the type of loan you take out. Nonoccupant co-clients are most common on two specific types of mortgages: conventional loans and FHA loans. Let’s take a look at the limitations for both types of loans.

Conventional Loans

If you want a nonoccupant co-client on a conventional loan, they need to sign on the home’s loan and agree to repay the loan if the primary occupant falls through. However, the non-ccupant co-client doesn’t need to be on the home’s title. The lender looks at both your credit and the nonoccupant co-client’s credit to determine if you can get a loan.

Lenders also consider you and your nonoccupant co-client’s debt-to-income (DTI) ratio when they look at your application. Every lender has its own standards when it comes to what they consider an acceptable DTI. Knowing both your own and your nonoccupant co-client’s DTI can make getting a loan easier.

FHA Loans

FHA loans are special types of government-backed loans that can allow you to buy a home with a lower credit score and as little as 3.5% down. If you want to get an FHA loan with a nonoccupant co-client (you can have a maximum of two), your co-client will need to meet a few basic criteria.

First, your co-client must be a relative or close friend. Mortgage lenders consider the following relatives as eligible to be non-occupant co-clients on FHA loans:

  • Parents and grandparents (including step, adoptive and foster)
  • Children (including step, adoptive and foster)
  • Siblings (including step, adoptive and foster)
  • Aunts and uncles
  • In-laws
  • Spouses or domestic partners

If the nonoccupant co-client is a close friend, you need to write an additional letter to your mortgage lender explaining your relationship and why your friend wants to help you.

Your nonoccupant co-client must also live in the United States for most of the year. They must have a DTI of 70% or less if you have less than a 20% down payment.

If you have more than 20% to put down, your co-client’s DTI can be anything. On an FHA loan, the nonoccupant co-client must be on the title of the home.

What A Co-Signer Is Responsible For

Before you agree to co-sign on a mortgage loan, it’s important you understand just how heavy of a burden this can be on you. As a nonoccupant co-client, you agree that you’re willing to take financial responsibility for the loan you co-signed on.

If the primary occupant misses multiple payments, you can easily become responsible for 100% of the loan value. It’s important to be careful when it comes to who you agree to co-sign for.

Make sure the primary occupant you’re vouching for has the means to pay the mortgage, insurance and maintenance fees for their new home. You should also make sure you have enough income to cover the payments if your primary occupant defaults.

There are a few additional things you can do to protect yourself against your primary occupant’s financial missteps. Here are the steps you should take if you agree to become a nonoccupant co-client on a mortgage loan:

  • Ask the primary occupant to give you online access to their mortgage statements.
  • Ask the lender to send you a notification immediately when the primary occupant misses a payment.
  • Set aside a monthly premium or two in your savings account in the event the primary occupant misses a payment.
  • Keep the lines of communication open with the primary occupant. Encourage them to be open and honest if they think they might miss a payment.

Most importantly, you should only become a nonoccupant co-client for people who you know are responsible. Never agree to co-sign on a loan for someone you just met.

Benefits Of Having A Co-Signer

Having a non-occupant co-client on your loan can make it much easier to get a mortgage. Here are a few of the benefits that come along with applying for a mortgage with a non-occupant co-client:

  • Looser credit score requirements: Your credit score plays a large role in your ability to get a mortgage loan. If you have bad credit, you may have trouble getting a loan. However, a nonoccupant co-client with a great score on your loan may convince lenders to be more lenient with you.
  • Assistance with employment requirements: Mortgage lenders need to see that you have a steady and reliable income before they’ll give you a loan. This can be a pain if you’re self-employed or if you had a recent gap in your resume. A nonoccupant co-client with a solid employment history can help you fill this requirement.
  • The potential for a larger loan: A nonoccupant co-client on your loan means the lender considers both of your incomes when they look at how much you can get in a loan. This can mean you may qualify for a larger loan. Of course, you should be absolutely positive you can make the payments before you accept the loan.

Drawbacks Of Co-Signing

As the nonoccupant co-client, co-signing on a loan comes with a number of risks including:

  • Potential responsibility for payments: If the primary occupant on the loan can’t come up with a monthly payment, you must pay it as the co-client. This premium will come out of your own pocket and you can’t refuse a payment.
  • Difficulty getting out of the loan: Once you co-sign on a mortgage loan, it’s very difficult to get out of it. Even if you have a falling out with the primary occupant, you’re still responsible for missed payments.
  • A legal tie to the loan: Becoming a nonoccupant co-client means you’re just as legally responsible for the loan as the person living in the house. If you fall behind on payment coverage, the lender may sue you for legal fees and the remaining balance on the loan.
  • Your credit may suffer: Co-signing on a loan puts your credit on the line. If the primary occupant misses a payment, your credit will suffer as well.

Alternatives To Having A Co-Signer

If you’re struggling financially and you can’t find someone willing to co-sign on your loan, there are still a few ways you can buy a home.

Explore Your Government-Backed Loan Options

In addition to FHA loans, there are other types of government-backed loans that can help you buy a home with lower requirements. Government-backed loans are special types of mortgages that have insurance from the federal government.

Government-backed loans are less risky for lenders, so they can extend them to people who normally wouldn’t qualify for a loan. FHA loans, VA loans and USDA loans each have their own qualification standards. Be sure you know all your loan options before you take a loan with a non-occupant co-client.

Use A First-Time Home Buyer Assistance Program

If you’re a first-time home buyer, you may qualify for an assistance program that can make buying a home easier. Home buying assistance can come from a state or local government, a federal program or a charitable or employer sponsor.

Depending on your circumstances, you may qualify for down payment assistance, a discount on a foreclosed home and/or tax breaks.

Many home buyer assistance programs are only available in certain areas. If you’d like to learn more about programs, loans and grants you may qualify for, start by visiting the Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD) website.

Summary

Applying for mortgages with a nonoccupant co-client can help you buy a home with a lower credit score, less income, or a shaky work history. When you apply with a nonoccupant co-client, the person co-signing agrees they will take on your debt if you default.

While this makes you a much more appealing candidate for lenders, it’s risky for the co-signer. Depending on the type of loan you get, there may be limitations on who can be your non-occupant co-client.

If you want to buy a home without a nonoccupant co-client, you may want to research home buying assistance or government-backed loans. Both options can help you qualify for a loan with lower standards.

When Homeowner’s good faith attempts to amicably work with the Bank in order to resolve the issue fails;

If you are a homeowner already in Chapter 13 Bankruptcy with questionable liens on your property, you needs to proceed with Adversary Proceeding to challenge the validity of Security Interest or Lien on your home, Our Adversary Proceeding package may be just what you need.

Homeowners who are not yet in Bankruptcy should wake up TODAY! before it’s too late by mustering enough courage for “Pro Se” Litigation (Self Representation – Do it Yourself) against the Lender – for Mortgage Fraud and other State and Federal law violations using foreclosure defense package found at https://fightforeclosure.net/foreclosure-defense-package/ “Pro Se” litigation will allow Homeowners to preserved their home equity, saves Attorneys fees by doing it “Pro Se” and pursuing a litigation for Mortgage Fraud, Unjust Enrichment, Quiet Title and Slander of Title; among other causes of action. This option allow the homeowner to stay in their home for 3-5 years for FREE without making a red cent in mortgage payment, until the “Pretender Lender” loses a fortune in litigation costs to high priced Attorneys which will force the “Pretender Lender” to early settlement in order to modify the loan; reducing principal and interest in order to arrive at a decent figure of the monthly amount the struggling homeowner could afford to pay.

If you find yourself in an unfortunate situation of losing or about to lose your home to wrongful fraudulent foreclosure, and need a complete package that will show you step-by-step litigation solutions helping you challenge these fraudsters and ultimately saving your home from foreclosure either through loan modification or “Pro Se” litigation visit: https://fightforeclosure.net/foreclosure-defense-package/

If you have received a Notice of Default “NOD”, take a deep breath, as this the time to start the FIGHT! and Protect your EQUITY!

If you do Nothing, you will see the WRONG parties WITHOUT standing STEAL your home right under your nose, and by the time you realize it, it might be too late! If your property has been foreclosed, use the available options on our package to reverse already foreclosed home and reclaim your most prized possession! You can do it by yourself! START Today — STOP Foreclosure Tomorrow!

What Homeowners Must Know About Filing Bankruptcy Without a Lawyer: Chapter 13 Issues

Tags

, , , , , , , , ,

It is possible to file bankruptcy without an attorney, and Chapter 13 cases present even more challenges for pro se filers than Chapter 7 cases. More forms, more calculations, and a payment plan must be approved by a Chapter 13 trustee and a judge.

Means Test Forms

Chapter 13 debtors must file two forms that together form the Means Test for a Chapter 13 case.

The first form is the Chapter 13 Statement of Your Current Monthly Income and Calculation of Commitment Period, Official Form B122C-1. This calculates your average monthly income and uses that figure to determine whether your case should last three years or as long as five years. In short, if your family income is less than the median for your state, your plan needs to last only three years. If your family income is more than the median, it needs to last five years. The median is the point at which 50 percent of families fall above and 50 percent fall below.

The second form is the Chapter 13 Calculation of Your Disposable Income, Official Form B122C-2 This calculates the difference between your income and your reasonable and necessary monthly expenses. If your income is higher than your expenses, you have disposable income. At least a part of that disposable income will be included in your Chapter 13 payment and will be used to pay allowed claims for unsecured debts like credit cards and medical bills.

While your income may be pretty easy to determine for the first form, there may be room for disagreement on whether certain expenses are reasonable or not on the second form. Some are set out for you in the calculation, based on national or regional averages, but others can be customized based on your particular circumstances. Getting those amounts approved by a Chapter 13 trustee can be the trickiest part of a Chapter 13 case.

Chapter 13 Plans

Once the income and expense calculations have been made and the commitment period has been determined, a payment plan can be calculated. The payment plan will include amounts for

  • disposable income from Official Form B122C-2.
  • arrearages owed to mortgage creditors
  • priority debts like back taxes
  • arrearages owed to car creditors
  • attorneys fees, if being paid through the plan
  • administrative fees to the Chapter 13 trustee
  • value of non-exempt assets

In some districts, known as conduit jurisdictions, debtors are required to make their entire house payment through a Chapter 13 trustee, not just an amount to cover arrearages. Studies have shown that debtors who make house payments this way are more likely to have a successful Chapter 13 plan.

It is possible to include your entire car payment in the plan and even adjust your interest rate or the amount of the principal you will repay if your car loan was at least 2 ½ years old when you filed the bankruptcy case.

Plan forms are usually specific to the jurisdiction in which a case is filed. Those can be found on the website for the court or the website for the Chapter 13 trustee to which the case has been assigned.

When Homeowner’s good faith attempts to amicably work with the Bank in order to resolve the issue fails;

If you are a homeowner already in Chapter 13 Bankruptcy with questionable liens on your property, you needs to proceed with Adversary Proceeding to challenge the validity of Security Interest or Lien on your home, Our Adversary Proceeding package may be just what you need.

Homeowners who are not yet in Bankruptcy should wake up TODAY! before it’s too late by mustering enough courage for “Pro Se” Litigation (Self Representation – Do it Yourself) against the Lender – for Mortgage Fraud and other State and Federal law violations using foreclosure defense package found at https://fightforeclosure.net/foreclosure-defense-package/ “Pro Se” litigation will allow Homeowners to preserved their home equity, saves Attorneys fees by doing it “Pro Se” and pursuing a litigation for Mortgage Fraud, Unjust Enrichment, Quiet Title and Slander of Title; among other causes of action. This option allow the homeowner to stay in their home for 3-5 years for FREE without making a red cent in mortgage payment, until the “Pretender Lender” loses a fortune in litigation costs to high priced Attorneys which will force the “Pretender Lender” to early settlement in order to modify the loan; reducing principal and interest in order to arrive at a decent figure of the monthly amount the struggling homeowner could afford to pay.

If you find yourself in an unfortunate situation of losing or about to lose your home to wrongful fraudulent foreclosure, and need a complete package that will show you step-by-step litigation solutions helping you challenge these fraudsters and ultimately saving your home from foreclosure either through loan modification or “Pro Se” litigation visit: https://fightforeclosure.net/foreclosure-defense-package/

If you have received a Notice of Default “NOD”, take a deep breath, as this the time to start the FIGHT! and Protect your EQUITY!

If you do Nothing, you will see the WRONG parties WITHOUT standing STEAL your home right under your nose, and by the time you realize it, it might be too late! If your property has been foreclosed, use the available options on our package to reverse already foreclosed home and reclaim your most prized possession! You can do it by yourself! START Today — STOP Foreclosure Tomorrow!

What Borrowers Must Know About Voiding Liens in a Mortgage

Tags

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

There are numerous methods for voiding questionable liens in any given mortgage. In this post, we’ll discuss an interesting decision by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in Bankruptcy Adversary Proceeding.

This decision from the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit poses a serious threat to mortgage companies that service mortgages of chapter 13 debtors. Mortgage servicers should be aware of the case’s implications and adjust their internal case monitoring procedures as necessary.

Consider a common situation. A borrower files a chapter 13 bankruptcy case, and her mortgage servicer files a proof of claim for the mortgage balance. The borrower then objects to the proof of claim based on some purported technicality: the signature was forged, the endorsement was improper, the servicer lacks standing to enforce the note, etc. For whatever reason, the mortgage servicer does not respond to this objection, and the claim is disallowed by default.

When this happens, the borrower will often attempt to leverage a favorable settlement, like a mortgage modification, by filing a lawsuit to void the mortgage under 11 U.S.C. § 506(d). This provision allows a bankruptcy court to void a lien if the lien secures a claim that is not “allowed.” Because the mortgage was “disallowed” by default due to the mortgage servicer’s failure to respond, this statute theoretically allows the court to void the mortgage altogether.

Courts generally do not void mortgages that are substantively valid but were disallowed because of a default. The most common solution in these situations is a settlement and a motion to reconsider the disallowance under 11 U.S.C. § 502(j). Bankruptcy courts may grant these motions for “cause” at their discretion, which is typically satisfied if the mortgage servicer can prove the substantive validity of the mortgage. See generally In re Oudomsouk, 483 B.R. 502, 513-14 (Bankr. M.D. Tenn. 2012). This works to everyone’s advantage: the mortgage servicer gets paid through the bankruptcy, and the debtor avoids the risk of post-bankruptcy foreclosure if the lien’s validity is ultimately upheld after the case concludes.

The decision of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in In re Blendheim may change this result. 2015 WL 5730015 (9th Cir. Oct. 7, 2015). In Blendheim, the debtors owned a condominium with two mortgages. After filing chapter 7 and obtaining a discharge of their unsecured debts, the debtors immediately filed a chapter 13 case to restructure their mortgages on the condominium (this process is known as a “chapter 20”). HSBC, the senior servicer, filed a proof of claim for the senior mortgage, but the debtors objected because (a) HSBC attached only the deed of trust, and not the promissory note, to the proof of claim, and (b) one of the signatures on the note was purportedly forged.

For reasons unknown, HSBC did not respond to the objection, and the bankruptcy court entered an order disallowing HSBC’s claim by default. Five months later, the debtors brought an adversary proceeding to void the mortgage under 11 U.S.C. § 506(d). Almost eighteen months after the bankruptcy court disallowed HSBC’s claim, HSBC filed a motion to reconsider the disallowance. HSBC also challenged the debtors’ attempt to void the mortgage because the disallowance was not actually litigated; it was the result of a default. The bankruptcy court disagreed, finding that (a) HSBC had no good reason for failing to respond to the claim objection, and (b) the statute plainly permitted lien avoidance in these circumstances. After the bankruptcy court confirmed the debtors’ plan, which provided for payment of only the junior mortgage, HSBC appealed.

On appeal, HSBC raised three primary issues. First, it argued that Section 506(d) should not operate to void its mortgage, notwithstanding the plain language of the statute, when the order disallowing the claim was not actually litigated but was based on a default. Second, it argued that even if the lien were properly voided under Section 506(d), the result could not be permanent because the debtors, having recently received a discharge in their chapter 7 case, were not eligible for a discharge in their chapter 13 case. Third, it argued that by losing its lien because of a default order in the bankruptcy case, as opposed to a formal lawsuit, it was denied due process.

The court disagreed with HSBC on each issue. First, it held that lien avoidance was appropriate. HSBC cited cases where courts refused to void a mortgage when a claim was disallowed for being filed late. The court distinguished these cases, holding that a creditor who files a late proof of claim is not “actively participating in the case” and therefore cannot have its state law lien rights impacted. See generally Dewsnup v. Timm, 502 U.S. 410, 418-19. But when a creditor timely files a proof of claim then willfully fails to respond to the debtors’ objection to the claim, the situation is fundamentally different. According to the court, the Bankruptcy Code plainly allows permanent lien avoidance when a creditor, like HSBC, “just sle[eps] on its rights and refuse[s] to defend its claim.” Blendheim, 2015 WL 5730015, at *11.

Next, the court addressed HSBC’s second argument and held that lien avoidance was appropriate even though the debtors were not eligible for a discharge. Acknowledging a split of authority, the court clarified that discharge affects only personal liability, not the in rem rights of creditors, so the cases on which HSBC relied were distinguishable. Nothing in the Bankruptcy Code prohibits lien avoidance just because a borrower has no right to a discharge.

Finally, the court held that HSBC’s due process was not offended. HSBC received notice of the claim objection and had ample time to respond.  Its failure to do so, while fatal to its lien, did not violate its due process rights.

What This Means for Mortgage Creditors

The Blendheim case may have serious implications for mortgage creditors. This situation is not an outlier: mortgage servicers commonly fail to respond to claim objections. his may be because of the quick deadline to respond to these objections or the use of separate legal counsel for handling administrative functions in bankruptcy versus defending adversary proceedings. Historically, when a claim is disallowed based on a creditor’s failure to respond to a claim objection, bankruptcy courts will grant a reconsideration motion under Section 502(j) if the creditor can prove the substantive validity of the mortgage.

After Blendheim, the result may be different. The Blendheim court, after all, did not seem to care about the underlying validity of HSBC’s claim. Instead, it focused on HSBC’s failure to respond without a good reason.

How does this Affect Mortgage Creditors

Mortgage servicers should be aware of this decision and should make sure that they are closely following the dockets of cases involving their borrowers in bankruptcy. If they don’t, they risk losing their mortgage lien, if any, altogether.

CASE STUDY:  HSBC v. BLENDHEIM

[The views expressed in this document are solely the views of the Author. This document is intended for informational purposes only and is not legal advice or a substitute for consultation with a licensed legal professional in a particular case or circumstance]

When Homeowner’s good faith attempts to amicably work with the Bank in order to resolve the issue fails;

If you are a homeowner already in Chapter 13 Bankruptcy with questionable liens on your property, you needs to proceed with Adversary Proceeding to challenge the validity of Security Interest or Lien on your home, Our Adversary Proceeding package may be just what you need.

Homeowners who are not yet in Bankruptcy should wake up TODAY! before it’s too late by mustering enough courage for “Pro Se” Litigation (Self Representation – Do it Yourself) against the Lender – for Mortgage Fraud and other State and Federal law violations using foreclosure defense package found at https://fightforeclosure.net/foreclosure-defense-package/ “Pro Se” litigation will allow Homeowners to preserved their home equity, saves Attorneys fees by doing it “Pro Se” and pursuing a litigation for Mortgage Fraud, Unjust Enrichment, Quiet Title and Slander of Title; among other causes of action. This option allow the homeowner to stay in their home for 3-5 years for FREE without making a red cent in mortgage payment, until the “Pretender Lender” loses a fortune in litigation costs to high priced Attorneys which will force the “Pretender Lender” to early settlement in order to modify the loan; reducing principal and interest in order to arrive at a decent figure of the monthly amount the struggling homeowner could afford to pay.

If you find yourself in an unfortunate situation of losing or about to lose your home to wrongful fraudulent foreclosure, and need a complete package that will show you step-by-step litigation solutions helping you challenge these fraudsters and ultimately saving your home from foreclosure either through loan modification or “Pro Se” litigation visit: https://fightforeclosure.net/foreclosure-defense-package/

If you have received a Notice of Default “NOD”, take a deep breath, as this the time to start the FIGHT! and Protect your EQUITY!

If you do Nothing, you will see the WRONG parties WITHOUT standing STEAL your home right under your nose, and by the time you realize it, it might be too late! If your property has been foreclosed, use the available options on our package to reverse already foreclosed home and reclaim your most prized possession! You can do it by yourself! START Today — STOP Foreclosure Tomorrow!

 

How Homeowners Can Set Aside Foreclosure Sale

Tags

, , , , , , , , , , , ,

What are the Reasons a Foreclosure Sale May Be Set Aside

Generally, to set aside a foreclosure sale, the homeowner must show:

– irregularity in the foreclosure process that makes the sale void under state law
– noncompliance with the terms of the mortgage, or
– an inadequate sale price that shocks the conscience.

Sometimes homeowners are not aware that a foreclosure sale has been scheduled until after it has already been completed. Even if your home has been sold, there are some instances where you might be able to have the foreclosure sale invalidated, though this is uncommon. This post will discuss how to set aside a foreclosure sale and the circumstances that might warrant it.

Irregularity in the Foreclosure Process

State statutes lay out the procedures for a foreclosure. If there are irregularities in the foreclosure process—meaning, the foreclosure is conducted in a manner not authorized by the statute—the sale can potentially be invalidated.

Some examples of irregularities in the foreclosure process are:

  • The loan servicer does not send notice to the borrower.
  • A state statute requires notice by advertising the sale in a newspaper, but the servicer does not place the advertisement.
  • The foreclosing lender did not get an assignment of the mortgage.

Example. In U.S. Bank v. Ibanez, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court invalidated two foreclosure sales where the mortgages were assigned to the lender after the completion of the foreclosure sale. The court decided that the foreclosures were void because the lenders lacked legal authority to foreclose.

However, in some states, courts are reluctant to set aside a foreclosure sale based upon violations of foreclosure statutes unless the violation resulted in actual prejudice (harm) to the homeowner. For instance, the homeowner may have to show that the lender’s failure to follow the statutory requirements chilled the bidding at the foreclosure sale and, as a result, the homeowner was liable for a larger deficiency judgment.

Noncompliance With Terms of the Mortgage

If the lender or servicer fails to comply with the terms of the mortgage contract, this may constitute sufficient reason to set aside a foreclosure sale.

Example. Many mortgages and deeds of trust require that the lender or servicer send the borrowers a breach letter giving them 30 days to cure the default before starting a foreclosure. If the servicer doesn’t send a breach letter, this may provide grounds for invalidating the foreclosure.

Inadequacy of Sale Price

Inadequacy of sale price might justify setting aside a foreclosure sale if the price is so low that it “shocks the conscience” of the court. It is often difficult to get a sale set aside on this basis. Usually to get a sale invalidated for inadequacy of sale price, you will also need additional circumstances that warrant voiding the sale.

For instance, courts are more likely to set aside a sale if there is an inadequate sales price combined with:

  • some irregularity (such as if the sale was advertised to take place at 3:00 p.m., but was actually held at 11:00 a.m.), or
  • unfairness (like if the lender re-sold the property for a much higher price right after the foreclosure sale, which demonstrates that it could have received a higher price at the foreclosure sale).

Though keep in mind that some courts might be hesitant to void the sale unless the violation resulted in actual prejudice to the homeowner.

How to Set Aside the Foreclosure Sale

The procedures to set aside a foreclosure sale depend on whether the sale was judicial (where the lender forecloses through the state court system) or nonjudicial (which means the lender does not have to go through state court to get one).

Setting Aside a Sale in a Judicial Foreclosure

Attempting to invalidate the sale in a judicial foreclosure can typically be done in the following ways, depending on state law:

  • If the foreclosure case stays open through completion of the sale process, then you can raise an objection to the legitimacy of the sale in that case.
  • If the state judicial process terminates once the foreclosure judgment is entered (and not appealed), then you must either file a motion to reopen the case or file a separate action to void the sale.

The actual process is generally determined by statute, rule, or case law.

Setting Aside a Sale in a Nonjudicial Foreclosure

If the property was foreclosed non-judicially, the homeowner will usually have to file a lawsuit in state court to void the sale. It may also be possible in some instances to file bankruptcy and ask that the sale be set aside as part of the bankruptcy case.

There are a few nonjudicial foreclosure states that require a court to confirm the sale. In those states, the homeowner can sometimes raise objections to the sale in the confirmation process. However, in some states the confirmation process is limited to determining whether or not the property sold for fair market value at the foreclosure sale and the court will not review other issues.

What Happens if the Sale Is Set Aside?

If the foreclosure sale is set aside as void, title to the property is typically returned to the homeowner while the mortgage and other liens generally are re-established. However, if the property has been resold to another party following an invalidated sale, some state statutes provide that the subsequent sale to a good faith purchaser eliminates the foreclosed homeowner’s right to challenge the sale on procedural grounds. In these types of cases, the homeowner might be able to seek damages against the lender or servicer.

The reasons that justify, as well as, the procedures for, invalidating a foreclosure sale are complicated. So, if you are considering trying to set aside a foreclosure sale, the earlier you begin the fight using the content found within our package, the better chance of succeeding.

[The views expressed in this document are solely the views of the Author. This document is intended for informational purposes only and is not legal advice or a substitute for consultation with a licensed legal professional in a particular case or circumstance]

When Homeowner’s good faith attempts to amicably work with the Bank in order to resolve the issue fails;

Home owners should wake up TODAY! before it’s too late by mustering enough courage for “Pro Se” Litigation (Self Representation – Do it Yourself) against the Lender – for Mortgage Fraud and other State and Federal law violations using foreclosure defense package found at https://fightforeclosure.net/foreclosure-defense-package/ “Pro Se” litigation will allow Homeowners to preserved their home equity, saves Attorneys fees by doing it “Pro Se” and pursuing a litigation for Mortgage Fraud, Unjust Enrichment, Quiet Title and Slander of Title; among other causes of action. This option allow the homeowner to stay in their home for 3-5 years for FREE without making a red cent in mortgage payment, until the “Pretender Lender” loses a fortune in litigation costs to high priced Attorneys which will force the “Pretender Lender” to early settlement in order to modify the loan; reducing principal and interest in order to arrive at a decent figure of the monthly amount the struggling homeowner could afford to pay.

If you find yourself in an unfortunate situation of losing or about to lose your home to wrongful fraudulent foreclosure, and need a complete package that will show you step-by-step litigation solutions helping you challenge these fraudsters and ultimately saving your home from foreclosure either through loan modification or “Pro Se” litigation visit: https://fightforeclosure.net/foreclosure-defense-package/

If you have received a Notice of Default “NOD”, take a deep breath, as this the time to start the FIGHT! and Protect your EQUITY!

If you do Nothing, you will see the WRONG parties WITHOUT standing STEAL your home right under your nose, and by the time you realize it, it might be too late! If your property has been foreclosed, use the available options on our package to reverse already foreclosed home and reclaim your most prized possession! You can do it by yourself! START Today — STOP Foreclosure Tomorrow!

If you are a homeowner already in Chapter 13 Bankruptcy and needs to proceed with Adversary Proceeding to challenge the validity of Security Interest or Lien on your home, Our Adversary Proceeding package may be just what you need.

What Homeowners With Business Should know About Federal Judgments and Chapter 11 Plans

Tags

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

What greeting card do you expect from the judgments warehoused in your file cabinets? Yes, those judgments can mail you a greeting card. Your first choice is the birthday card: “Happy 10th Year Anniversary. What a ride. Thanks for the renewal. See you in ten years.” Your other choice is the condolence card: “10 years? You waited too long. My dearest sympathy.”

Victory lasts forever, but not a federal judgment. “There is ‘no specific federal statute of limitations on how long [a federal] judgment is effective. (citation omitted) When no federal statute applied, state practices and procedures are utilized.”1 State law provides a judgment creditor with the rights and remedies to enforce a federal money judgment under F.R.C.P. 69(a)(1), including the renewal of a money judgment.2 The law of the state measures the life of a federal judgment. A pending appeal does not toll the enforceability period under C.C.P. § 683.020.3

The Law of the Domicile Measures the Life of a Federal Judgment

In In Re Levander,4 the Ninth Circuit held that the federal courts apply the law of the domicile in the enforcement of a judgment.5 Similarly, in McCarthy v. Johnson,6 the court held that Utah state law provided the mechanism for the renewal of a federal judgment. In Fidelity Nat. Fin. Inc. v. Friedman, the Ninth Circuit held that state law applies when measuring the life of judgments. Federal and bankruptcy courts apply state law when renewing a judgment because federal judgments lack a federal expiration date.7 While Fidelity dealt with a registered judgment, the principle that a registered judgment is deemed a judgment for all purposes under 28 U.S.C. § 1963 is nevertheless applicable.

The Ninth Circuit held that the federal courts are to apply state law in determining the statute of limitations.8 Likewise, the Fifth Circuit applied Texas state law in Andrews v. Roadway Express, Inc. (5th Cir. 2006) 473 F.3d 565, holding that a consent decree, arising from a class action suit, was time barred as a result of the plaintiffs’ failure to timely renew the judgment and raising the issue whether other judgment providing for payment to class bear a fixed life.9 Unless a federal statute provides otherwise, the practice relative to the revival of dormant judgment is governed by state law.10

Deader Than a Doornail: the Statue of Repose

Some states have held that a time-barred judgment is extinguished and ceases to exist (“statute of repose”), as opposed to having a procedural rule that bars recovery in the enforcement of judgments.11 In United States v. Tacoma Gravel & Supply Inc.,12 the Ninth Circuit, construing Washington state law, held that Washington state’s limit on the enforceability of judgments is a statute of extinguishment (i.e., a statute of repose),13 not a statute of limitations. Moreover, the Ninth Circuit unequivocally held that “this is not a statute of limitations but of extinguishment; after six years, a Washington judgment has no force or effect—it ceases to exist. [Collection of Washington state cases]”14 The Tacoma court applied Washington state law to bar enforcement brought by the United States, stating that the “Appellant had no judgment left to renew,” a conclusion predicated in part on the government’s filing in state court.15 The court did not leave the government empty-handed. It left open the prospect that the underlying claim was still viable under United States v. Summerlin.16 Tacoma is important because it demonstrates that a renewal statute is also a statute of repose that may extinguish the judgment completely.

Read the Manual

California Code of Civil Procedure §§ 683.110 through 683.220 provide for the renewal of a judgment consisting generally of the filing and service of an application for renewal [Sections 683.140 to 683.150]. Upon filing the application, the clerk shall enter the renewal in the court records.17 Section 683.150(a) authorizes renewal without the necessity of service of process of the renewal “package.” (Judicial Council Form Nos. EJ-190, EJ-195, and MC-012, and include a detailed declaration of interest).

To initiate enforcement, the judgment creditor must serve the renewal by mail. See C.C.P § 683.160(b). To maintain the judgment lien on the real property, the judgment creditor must record a certified copy of the application for renewal. SeeC.C.P § 683.180.18 Ten years is a long time and expect that the debtor might have conveyed the property, fraudulently or otherwise. The judgment creditor must personally serve the transferee and file proof of service within 90 days of the renewal filing. See §§ 683.180(b)(1) & (2) in prosecuting the renewal. This is a common error and title reports (modern parlance and much cheaper: litigation guaranty) are de riguer in identifying the transferee. In the online world, nearly every county recorder (except Los Angeles) will identify the grantee of the debtor under the “granter/grantee” index. Use Judicial Council Form EJ-190 for the Northern District of California, not the Central District, which requires a traditional filing.19

Chapter 11 Plans Are Money Judgments and Expire Like Any Other Federal Judgment

The fact that a class action [“Andrews”] judgment expired suggests that a confirmed Chapter 11 plan, providing for payment to the creditors, would likewise expire unless renewed pursuant to the domicile law. Chapter 11 plans are a blend of contract, judgment, and consent decree, offering payment to a group of creditors.20 Chapter 11 plans assure payment equivalent to their recovery in a Chapter 7 liquidation21 and are subject to enforcement if breached.22 If a consent decree arising from a class action expires like any other federal judgment, the confirmed Chapter 11 plan, bearing the near-identical attributes (judgment, class of claimants, continuing supervision, claim filings procedures, and pro rata payment based on the consent decree), would likewise expire absent a renewal under state law.23 The statute of repose would extinguish the plan obligations and reinvigorate a mediocre balance sheet. The plan discharge would recapitalize the debtor. Who would be beneficiary of the plan “kicking the bucket?” Answer: the shareholders who are the [pre-petition] creditors.

Is dumping the Chapter 11 plan a good deal and for whom? Answer: Yes, if stock of the debtor, freed of the plan and publicly traded, offers greater value to the creditors than payments under the plan. Expiring Chapter 11 plans recast the asbestos mega-cases24 whose plans bear a lifespan of 10 years plus and compensate claimants with debtor’s stock [through a claimant’s trust]. The statute of repose frees the debtor of plan obligations [billions], jumpstarts the stock, and puts real money in the hands of the claimants.

Federal Courts Are Eternal But Federal Judgments Are Not

The life of a federal judgment could easily exceed 10 years, given various appeals up to the Supreme Court. Consent decrees offering payment over time to claimants can run 10 years or more. Asbestos Chapter 11 plans readily exceed ten years and the Johns Manville plan is now in excess of 20 years. These plans [judgments or decrees] bear the risk of extinguishment if not renewed and, if expired, would upset settled social and political expectations.

Is a plan implosion a disaster? In a Chapter 11, the beneficiaries are the creditors as shareholders, anticipating an upswing in the stock value, would move to extinguish the plan and inherit a revived company. This result suggests that the plan extinguishment more efficiently compensates victims of the mass tort than the plan payments because the invisible hand of the marketplace reveals this outcome. The plan extinguishment will wipe out the plan and the market will rush to the stock.

1. In re Fifarek (Stark v. Fifarek), 370 B.R. 754, 758 (Bankr. Court, W.D. Mich. 2007); In re Hunt (Lillie v. Hunt), 323 B.R. 665, 666 (Bankr. W.D. Tenn. 2005) (“Since there is no specific statute of federal statute of limitations on how long this judgment is effective, the parties agree that we must look to Tennessee law [citation omitted])”.

2. Fed R. Civ Pr. 69(a)(1)&(2)

3. Fidelity Creditor Service, Inc. v. Browne (2001) 89 Cal.App.4th 195, 201 [106 Cal.Rptr.2d 854]: The period prescribed in Section 683.020 commences on the date of entry and is not tolled for any reason

4 In re Levander, 180 F.3d 1114 (9th Cir. 1999)

5. Id. at 1121-1122, “We have held that Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 69(a) empowers federal courts to rely on state law to add judgment-debtors under Rule 69(a), which permits judgment creditors to use any execution method consistent with the practice and procedure of the state in which the district court sits.” citing to Cigna Property & Cas. Ins. Co. v. Polaris Pictures Corp., 159 F.3d 412, 421 (9th Cir.1998) (quoting Peacock v. Thomas, 516 U.S. 349, 359 n. 7, 116 S.Ct. 862 [1996])(internal quotation marks omitted); see also, Andrews at 568; Crump v. Bank of America, 235 F.R.D. 113, 115 (D.D.C. 2006); RMA Ventures v. Sun Am. Life Ins. Co., 576 F.3d 1070, 1074 (10th Cir. 2009) (“Once a federal district court issues a write of execution, a judgment creditor must follow the procedure on execution established by the laws of the state in which the district court sits. [Citations omitted] ***). Thus, as required by FRCP 69(a)(10), Defendants have turned here to the method of execution prescribed under Utah law.”

6. McCarthy v. Johnson, 172 F.3d 63 (10th Cir. 1999). Unpublished Opinion

7. Fed.R.Civ.Pro 69(a) et seq. incorporates the law of the state in enforcing money judgments, including the requirement of a renewal. McDaniel v. Signal Capital Corp., 198 B.R. 483, 486-487 (Bankr. S.D. Texas 1996); see also, In re Brink, 227 B.R. 94, 95-96 (Bankr. N.D. Texas, 1998); In re Davis, 323 B.R. 745, 748-749 (Bankr. D. Ariz, 2005); In re Hunt; (Lillie v. Hunt), 323 B.R. 665, 666-667 (Bankr. W.D. Texas 2005); In re Fifarek (Stark v. Fifark), 370 B.R. 754, 758 (Bankr. W. D. Mich. 2007). Also In re Romano (Romano v. LaVecchia), Westlaw cite unavailable [WESTLAW?] (9th Circuit BAP, 2009) (“Thus, state law governs the procedure for execution on a judgment in the absence of an applicable federal statute. There is no relevant federal statute we have been able to locate with regard to the renewal of judgment. The parties agree that Nevada law governs the enforcement of the judgment.” [6 years], aff’d 2010 Ap. Lex 5444 (9th Circuit, 2010).

8. See Marx v. Go Publ. Co., Inc., 721 F.2d 1272, 1273 (1983); see also; Duchek v. Jacobi, 646 F.2d 415, 417 (1981).

9. Andrews at 567-568 (collection of cases). Note the discussion whether the issue is the time limits for the issuance of a writ of execution is subject to state law and whether the judgment is extinguished.

10. See Donellan Jerome Inc. v. Trylon Metals Inc., 996 F. Supp. 996 (USDC, N.D.Ohio 1967 (Collection of cases).

11. Mississippi provides for statute of repose, not statute of limitations for judgment renewals. [Mississippi Code § Ann 15-1-43].

12. United States v. Tacoma Gravel & Supply Co., 376 F.2d 343, 344-345 (9th Cir. 1967) (“Consequently, the judgment becomes inoperative for any purpose after expiration of six years.) Please note that, while Washington has extended the life of a judgment to ten years, the holding in Tacoma that the Washington statute is one of repose, extinguishing the judgment, still applies. Cf. RCW 4.16.020 and 4.56.210

13. A statute of repose cuts off a right of action after a specified period time, irrespective of accrual or even notice that a legal right has been invaded. Giest v. Sequoia Ventures, 83 Cal.App.4th 300, 305 (Cal.App.1 Dist., 2000).

14. Tacoma at 344.

15. Id. at p. 345.

16. In re Penberthy, 211 B.R. 391, 395 (Bankr.W.D. Wash. 1997).

17. Goldman v. Simpson, 160 Cal.App.4th 255, 262: “The statutory renewal of judgment is an automatic, ministerial act accomplished by the clerk of the court; entry of the renewal of judgment does not constitute a new or separate judgment. ‘Filing the renewal application (and paying the appropriate filing fee, Gov.C. § 70626(b)) results in automatic renewal of the judgment. No court order or new judgment is required. The court clerk simply enters the renewal of judgment in the court records.’”

18. Songer v. Cooney (Cal. App. 2 Dist. 1989) 214 Cal.App.3d 387, 393, 264 Cal.Rptr. 1 [abstract of judgment ensures enforceability of judgment lien even though the debtor is bankrupt].

19. If in state court, the alternative method (if timely) is to file a suit to renew the judgment. See Pratali vs. Gates (1992) 4 Cal App. 4th 632, 637-638 and Green vs. Zissis (1992) 5 Cal. App. 4th 1219, 1222; for more a detailed discussion, see Fredric Goldman vs. Orenthal James Simpson (O.J. Simpson) (2008) 160 Cal.App.4th 255 [continuing jurisdiction over judgment debtor who absconds from California]. If the defendant departed the state, C.C.P. § 351 tolls the statute of limitations. Green vs. Zissis, supra., at 1222-1123. See also Kertesz vs. Ostrosky (2004) 115 Cal. App. 4th 369, 373. A California state court judgment becomes final upon expiration of the appeal time, or issuance of the remittitur. Green vs. Zissis, supra. p. 1223. If notice of judgment is service, the judgment becomes final in 60 days, and absent notice, 180 days. The notice of entry of judgment kicks off the 60-day clock under C.R.C. 8.104(a)(1) & (2) [60 days after notice from clerk or party], but under C.R.C. 8.104(a)(3), the judgment does not become final until 180 days after entry of judgment. A federal judgment, on the other hand, differs from state law, and is final upon entry. Eichman v Fotomat Corp. (9th Cir 1985) 759 F.2d 1434, 1439.

20. In re Bruce Bartleson, 253 B.R. 75 (9th Cir. BAP 2000) at 78-79

21. 11 U.S.C. § 1129(a)(7)(A)(ii) [Unsecured creditors should emerge from the Chapter 11 with equal or better than what would a Chapter 7 would pay]

22. See In re OORC Leasing, LLC (Bankr. N.D. Ind. 2007) 359 B.R. 227 at 233.

23. A statute of repose extinguishes the judgment. A statute of limitations on a judgment renders the judgment unenforceable. Consent decrees, Chapter 11 plans, and installment judgments provide for periodic payments, sometimes spanning more than ten years. Chapter 11 asbestos plans span decades. This article suggests that a statute of repose would extinguish the decree, plan, or judgment. The statute of limitations might render the decree, plan, or judgment unenforceable but the obligation might remain viable as a contract and enforceable by way of independent suit. Installment judgments have a separate clock under C.C.P. § 683.130(b)(1) based upon the accrual of the past-due payments. The math is left to another article.

24. Nearly all publicly traded.

[The views expressed in this document are solely the views of the Author. This document is intended for informational purposes only and is not legal advice or a substitute for consultation with a licensed legal professional in a particular case or circumstance]

When Homeowner’s good faith attempts to amicably work with the Bank in order to resolve the issue fails;

Home owners should wake up TODAY! before it’s too late by mustering enough courage for “Pro Se” Litigation (Self Representation – Do it Yourself) against the Lender – for Mortgage Fraud and other State and Federal law violations using foreclosure defense package found at https://fightforeclosure.net/foreclosure-defense-package/ “Pro Se” litigation will allow Homeowners to preserved their home equity, saves Attorneys fees by doing it “Pro Se” and pursuing a litigation for Mortgage Fraud, Unjust Enrichment, Quiet Title and Slander of Title; among other causes of action. This option allow the homeowner to stay in their home for 3-5 years for FREE without making a red cent in mortgage payment, until the “Pretender Lender” loses a fortune in litigation costs to high priced Attorneys which will force the “Pretender Lender” to early settlement in order to modify the loan; reducing principal and interest in order to arrive at a decent figure of the monthly amount the struggling homeowner could afford to pay.

If you find yourself in an unfortunate situation of losing or about to lose your home to wrongful fraudulent foreclosure, and need a complete package that will show you step-by-step litigation solutions helping you challenge these fraudsters and ultimately saving your home from foreclosure either through loan modification or “Pro Se” litigation visit: https://fightforeclosure.net/foreclosure-defense-package/

If you have received a Notice of Default “NOD”, take a deep breath, as this the time to start the FIGHT! and Protect your EQUITY!

If you do Nothing, you will see the WRONG parties WITHOUT standing STEAL your home right under your nose, and by the time you realize it, it might be too late! If your property has been foreclosed, use the available options on our package to reverse already foreclosed home and reclaim your most prized possession! You can do it by yourself! START Today — STOP Foreclosure Tomorrow!

If you are a homeowner already in Chapter 13 Bankruptcy and needs to proceed with Adversary Proceeding to challenge the validity of Security Interest or Lien on your home, Our Adversary Proceeding package may be just what you need.

What Homeowners Should Know About Foreclosure Defense

Tags

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Over the past few years, a growing number of homeowners in the foreclosure process have begun to fight back, by stalling foreclosure proceedings or stopping them altogether. The legal strategy employed by these homeowners is known as foreclosure defense.

Since 2007, nearly 4.2 million people in the United States have lost their homes to foreclosure. By early 2014, that number is expected to climb to 6 million. Historically, the legal process of foreclosure, one that requires a homeowner to return his or her house to a lender after defaulting on a mortgage, has tilted in favor of the banks and lenders — who are well-versed in the law and practice of foreclosure.

The simplest way to avoid foreclosure is by modifying the mortgage. In a mortgage modification, the homeowner convinces the lender to renegotiate the terms of the mortgage in order to make the payments more affordable.

A mortgage modification can include:

  • A reduction or change in the loan’s interest rate.
  • A reduction in the loan’s principal.
  • A reduction or elimination of late fees and penalties for non-payment.
  • A reduction in your monthly payment.
  • Forbearance, to temporarily stop making payments, or extend the time for making payments.

The goal of the foreclosure defense strategy is to prove that the bank does not have a right to foreclose. The chances of success rest on an attorney’s ability to challenge how the mortgage industry operates. The strategy aims to take advantage of flaws in the system, and presumes illegal or unethical behavior on the part of lenders.

Foreclosure defense is a new concept that continues to grow alongside the rising tide of foreclosure cases. While some courts accept foreclosure defense arguments, others find them specious and hand down decisions more beneficial to banks than to homeowners.

A growing number of victories by homeowners in state and federal courts have altered the foreclosure landscape dramatically, giving optimism to tens of thousands of other homeowners in similar situations. And because many of America’s large banks have acknowledged unorthodox, unaccepted or even illegal practices in the areas of mortgages, loan modifications and foreclosures, they inadvertently have given homeowners additional ammunition with which to fight.

Foreclosure Defense Varies by State

A major strategy of foreclosure defense is to make a bank substantiate clear chains of title for a mortgage and a promissory note. If any link in either chain is questionable, it can nullify a lender’s ability to make a valid claim on a property.

The foreclosure process varies somewhat from state to state, depending on whether your state uses mortgages or deeds of trust for the purchase of real property. A mortgage or deed of trust outlines a transfer of an interest in a property; it is not, in itself, a promise to pay a debt. Instead, it contains language that gives the lender the right to take the property if the borrower breaches the terms of the promissory note.

If you signed a mortgage, it generally means you live in a state that conducts judicial foreclosures, meaning that a lender has to sue in court in order to get a judgment to foreclose. If you signed a deed of trust, you live in a state that conducts non-judicial foreclosures, which means that a lender does not have to go to court to initiate a foreclosure action.

In a judicial state, homeowners have the advantage because they can require that the lender produce proof and perfection of claim, at the initial court hearing. In a non-judicial state, the lender does not have to prove anything because the state’s civil code gives it the right to foreclose after a notice of default has been sent. So in non-judicial states, a homeowner must file a civil action against the lender to compel it to provide proof of claim.

Regardless of whether you signed a mortgage or a deed of trust, you also signed a promissory note — a promise to pay back a specified amount over a set period of time. The note goes directly to the lender and is held on its books as an asset for the amount of the promised repayment. The mortgage or deed of trust is a public record and, by law, must be recorded in a county or town office. Each time a promissory note is assigned, i.e. sold to another party, the note itself must be endorsed with the name of the note’s new owner. Each time a deed of trust or mortgage is assigned to another entity, that transaction must be recorded in the town or county records office.

Foreclosure Defense and Chain of Title

Here is where foreclosure defense can begin to chip away at a bank’s claim on your property. In order for a mortgage, deed of trust or promissory note to be valid, it must have what is known as “perfection” of the chain of title. In other words, there must be a clear, unambiguous record of ownership from the time you signed your papers at closing, to the present moment. Any lapse in the chain of title causes a “defect” in the instrument, making it invalid.

In reality, lapses occur frequently. As mortgages and deeds began to routinely be bought and sold, the sheer magnitude of those transfers made it difficult, costly and time-consuming for institutions to record every transaction in a county records office. But in order to have some method of record-keeping, the banks created the Mortgage Electronic Registration System (MERS), a privately held company that tracks the servicing rights and ownership of the nation’s mortgages. The MERS holds more than 66 million American mortgages in its database.

When a foreclosure is imminent, MERS appoints a party to foreclose, based on its records of who owns the mortgage or deed of trust. But some courts have rejected the notion that MERS has the legal authority to assign title to a particular party in the first place. A court can decide MERS has no “standing,” meaning that the court does not recognize its right to initiate foreclosure since MERS does not have any financial interest in either the property or the promissory note.

And since MERS has essentially bypassed the county record-keeping system, the perfection of chain of title cannot be independently verified. This is where a foreclosure defense can gain traction, by questioning the perfection of the chain of title and challenging MERS’ legal authority to assign title.

Promissory Notes are Key to Foreclosure Defense

Some courts may also challenge MERS’ ability to transfer the promissory note, since it likely has been sold to a different entity, or in most cases, securitized (pooled with other loans) and sold to an unknown number of entities. In the U.S. Supreme Court case Carpenter v. Longan, it was ruled that where a promissory note goes, a deed of trust must follow. In other words, the deed and the note cannot be separated.

If your note has been securitized, it now belongs to someone other than the holder of your mortgage. This is known as bifurcation — the deed of trust points to one party, while the promissory note points to another. Thus, a foreclosure defense claims that since the relationship between the deed and the note has become defective, it renders the deed of trust unenforceable.

Your promissory note must also have a clear chain of title, according to the nation’s Uniform Commercial Code (UCC), the body of regulations that governs these types of financial instruments. But over and over again, borrowers have been able to demonstrate that subsequent assignments of promissory notes have gone unendorsed.

In fact, it has been standard practice for banks to leave the assignment blank when loans are sold and/or securitized and, customarily, the courts have allowed blank assignment to be an acceptable form of proof of ownership. However, when the Massachusetts Supreme Court in U.S. Bank v. Ibenez ruled that blank assignment is not sufficient to claim perfection, it provided another way in which a foreclosure can be challenged.

In their most egregious attempts to remedy these glaring omissions, some banks have actually tried to reverse-engineer chains of title, using fraudulent means such as:

  • Robo-signing of documents.
  • False notary signatures.
  • Submission of questionable, inaccurate or patently counterfeit affidavits.

Exposure of these dishonest methods halted many foreclosures in their tracks and helped increase governmental scrutiny of banks’ foreclosure procedures.

Other Foreclosure Defense Strategies

Another option for a homeowner who wishes to expose a lender’s insufficient perfection of title is to file for bankruptcy. In a Chapter 7 filing, you can declare your home an “unsecured asset” and wait for the lender to object. This puts the burden of proof on the lender to show a valid chain of assignment. In a Chapter 13 bankruptcy, you can file an Adversary Proceeding, wherein you sue your lender to compel it to produce valid proof of claim. The Bankruptcy Code requires that your lender provide evidence of “perfected title.”

Another foreclosure defense argument explores the notion of whether the bank is a real party of interest. If it’s not, it doesn’t have the right to foreclose. For example, if your loan has been securitized, your original lender has already been paid. At that point, the debt was written off and the debt should be considered settled. In order to prove that your original lender has profited from the securitization of your mortgage, it is advised that you obtain a securitization audit. The audit is completed by a third-party researcher who tracks down your loan, and then provides you with a court-admissible document showing that your loan has been securitized.

A foreclosure defense can also argue that once a loan has been securitized, or converted to stock, it is no longer a loan and cannot be converted back into a loan. That means that your promissory note no longer exists, as such. And if that is true, then your mortgage or deed of trust is no longer securing anything. Instead of the bank insisting that you have breached the contract specified in the promissory note, foreclosure defense argues that the bank has actually destroyed that agreement itself. And if the agreement doesn’t exist, how can it be enforced? A corollary to this argument states that your loan is no longer enforceable because it is now owned by many shareholders and a promissory note is only enforceable in its whole entirety. How can thousands of people foreclose on your house?

While the foreclosure defense strategy is legal in nature, and can be handled differently by different courts, it should not be ignored when preparing a case.

The tactic of attacking a lender’s shoddy or illegal practices has proven to be the most successful strategy of foreclosure defense, since most courts are loathe to accept unlawful or unethical behavior, even from banks. If a homeowner can present clear instances of lost or missed paperwork, demonstrate that notes were misplaced or improperly endorsed, or prove that documents were forged, robo-signed, or reversed-engineered, the more likely a court will rule in his or her favor.

If you are considering a foreclosure defense, you have two options, you can either represent yourself in the Court as a Pro Se Litigant, (USING OUR FORECLOSURE DEFENSE PACKAGE), if you cannot afford to pay Attorneys Fees, as foreclosure proceeding can take years while you are living in your home WITHOUT PAYING ANY MORTGAGE. Or You may retain a Legal Counsel to Defend you. If you chose the second option, it is imperative that you retain the services of professional legal counsel. Regardless of how educated you are about the process, this is an area of law that requires a well-thought-out, competent presentation in a State or Federal court. Nonetheless, the Attorneys fees for foreclosure defense can accumulate over the years to thousands and even tens of thousands of dollars, that is why most homeowners, opt to represent themselves in the proceedings which can take anywhere between 1-7 years, while homeowners are living in their homes Mortgage-Free. The good news is that most foreclosure defense Attorneys equally use the same materials found in our foreclosure defense package to defend homeowner’s properties, and with these same materials, you can equally  represent yourself as a Pro Se (Self Representing), litigant.

A successful foreclosure defense may prohibit or delay the foreclosure process or it simply may induce a lending institution to negotiate a loan modification that allows you to stay in your home — which, of course, was the goal in the first place. You can equally be awarded damages by the courts for mortgage law violations by the lenders, in addition to loan modification.

When Homeowner’s good faith attempts to amicably work with the Bank in order to resolve the issue fails;

Home owners should wake up TODAY! before it’s too late by mustering enough courage for “Pro Se” Litigation (Self Representation – Do it Yourself) against the Lender – for Mortgage Fraud and other State and Federal law violations using foreclosure defense package found at https://fightforeclosure.net/foreclosure-defense-package/ “Pro Se” litigation will allow Homeowners to preserved their home equity, saves Attorneys fees by doing it “Pro Se” and pursuing a litigation for Mortgage Fraud, Unjust Enrichment, Quiet Title and Slander of Title; among other causes of action. This option allow the homeowner to stay in their home for 3-5 years for FREE without making a red cent in mortgage payment, until the “Pretender Lender” loses a fortune in litigation costs to high priced Attorneys which will force the “Pretender Lender” to early settlement in order to modify the loan; reducing principal and interest in order to arrive at a decent figure of the monthly amount the struggling homeowner could afford to pay.

If you find yourself in an unfortunate situation of losing or about to lose your home to wrongful fraudulent foreclosure, and need a complete package that will show you step-by-step litigation solutions helping you challenge these fraudsters and ultimately saving your home from foreclosure either through loan modification or “Pro Se” litigation visit: https://fightforeclosure.net/foreclosure-defense-package/

If you have received a Notice of Default “NOD”, take a deep breath, as this the time to start the FIGHT! and Protect your EQUITY!

If you do Nothing, you will see the WRONG parties WITHOUT standing STEAL your home right under your nose, and by the time you realize it, it might be too late! If your property has been foreclosed, use the available options on our package to reverse already foreclosed home and reclaim your most prized possession! You can do it by yourself! START Today — STOP Foreclosure Tomorrow!

If you are a homeowner already in Chapter 13 Bankruptcy and needs to proceed with Adversary Proceeding to challenge the validity of Security Interest or Lien on your home, Our Adversary Proceeding package may be just what you need.

What Are the Options for Homeowners During Foreclosure

Tags

, , , , , , , , , , , ,

When faced with foreclosure, it’s important to know your options and understand all the potential solutions that may be available to help you avoid foreclosure. It’s also important to understand what can happen if you fail to take action and foreclosure becomes unavoidable. The process can be stressful, embarrassing, and it can have long-lasting consequences.

Walking away from your home voluntarily, may seem like the best solution when your home is valued lower than what you owe. However, this action may lead to financial consequences in the future. In some states, you may be required to pay a portion of your mortgage debt even after the home has entered foreclosure. Also, the impact to your credit may make it difficult to rent or purchase a home in the future. It may be best to explore other options to foreclosure with your mortgage company before making a decision to leave your home.

Keep in mind, your mortgage company doesn’t want to foreclose on your home. Just like there are consequences for you, the foreclosure process is time-consuming and expensive for them. They want to work with you to resolve the situation. However, some homeowners simply don’t take advantage of the help available and foreclosure becomes the only option.

  • owing the mortgage company the deficiency balance of your mortgage (the deficiency balance is the remaining total mortgage balance after the sale price of the home)
  • lengthening the time you could receive a Fannie Mae mortgage to purchase your next home to at least 7 years

A foreclosure is the legal process where your mortgage company obtains ownership of your home (i.e., repossess the property). A foreclosure occurs when the homeowner has failed to make payments and has defaulted or violated the terms of their mortgage loan.

A foreclosure can usually be avoided—even if you already received a foreclosure notice. See the chart (in “Foreclosure Comparison”) to compare some other options: Short Sale and Mortgage Release (Deed-in-Lieu of Foreclosure). No matter the option, you must take action as soon as you can.

  • Eviction from your home—you’ll lose your home and any equity that you may have established
  • Stress and uncertainty of not knowing exactly when you will have to leave your home
  • Damage to your credit—impacting your ability to get new housing, credit, and maybe even potential employment, for many years
  • May owe a deficiency balance after the foreclosure sale
  • Lose any relocation assistance or leasing opportunities that may be available with other options
  • Forfeit ability to get a Fannie Mae mortgage to purchase another home for at least 7 years (Fannie Mae guidelines)

There are two main types of foreclosure:

  • Judicial – supervised by a court with formal legal proceedings (civil law suit)
  • Non-judicial – non-court supervised

In both types of foreclosure, the homeowner receives the legal notice of foreclosure, the legal notice is published in the local paper (in most cases), and the home is sold at public auction. (For judicial foreclosures, you’ll be served with legal notice of the pending action, and the court will approve or set the foreclosure date and sale.)

The process and timing of a foreclosure can vary by state laws, and many other factors. However, your mortgage company can begin preparing the default notice/foreclosure proceedings on your home as early as 60 days after you have missed your first payment. That’s why you should take action early to begin working with your mortgage company to resolve your payment problems immediately.

How Do You Avoid Foreclosure?
The most important thing—take action now. You have nothing to lose (and everything to gain) by working with your mortgage company to avoid foreclosure.

If foreclosure is imminent, other options may no longer be available. However, you may still be able to leave your home without having to go through foreclosure. This means you won’t have a foreclosure on your credit history and you may qualify for relocation assistance to ease your transition to new housing.

  1. Gather your financial information—Make sure you have your basic financial and loan information on hand when you call your mortgage company. You’ll need:
  • your mortgage statements, including information on a second mortgage (if applicable)
  • your other monthly debt payments (e.g., car or student loans, credit card payments), and
  • your income details (pay stubs and income tax returns).

2. Explain your current situation—Be ready to outline your current hardship and explain why you are having trouble making your mortgage payment, why this is a long-term problem and confirm that you are ready to leave your home to avoid foreclosure. Your mortgage company will need to understand the reasons why you are having difficulty in order to find the right solution for you.

Contact Your Mortgage Company — Tell them you are interested in a Mortgage Release and you want to see if you qualify.

Your mortgage company wants to help you avoid foreclosure and, in most cases, will be willing to work with you. The biggest mistake you can make is to wait any longer to take action. Contact your mortgage company today to determine if you can avoid foreclosure. If you need further assistance (before or after contacting your mortgage company), contact a housing counselor.


When Homeowner’s good faith attempts to amicably work with the Bank in order to resolve the issue fails;

Home owners should wake up TODAY! before it’s too late by mustering enough courage for “Pro Se” Litigation (Self Representation – Do it Yourself) against the Lender – for Mortgage Fraud and other State and Federal law violations using foreclosure defense package found at https://fightforeclosure.net/foreclosure-defense-package/ “Pro Se” litigation will allow Homeowners to preserved their home equity, saves Attorneys fees by doing it “Pro Se” and pursuing a litigation for Mortgage Fraud, Unjust Enrichment, Quiet Title and Slander of Title; among other causes of action. This option allow the homeowner to stay in their home for 3-5 years for FREE without making a red cent in mortgage payment, until the “Pretender Lender” loses a fortune in litigation costs to high priced Attorneys which will force the “Pretender Lender” to early settlement in order to modify the loan; reducing principal and interest in order to arrive at a decent figure of the monthly amount the struggling homeowner could afford to pay.

If you find yourself in an unfortunate situation of losing or about to lose your home to wrongful fraudulent foreclosure, and need a complete package that will show you step-by-step litigation solutions helping you challenge these fraudsters and ultimately saving your home from foreclosure either through loan modification or “Pro Se” litigation visit: https://fightforeclosure.net/foreclosure-defense-package/

If you have received a Notice of Default “NOD”, take a deep breath, as this the time to start the FIGHT! and Protect your EQUITY!

If you do Nothing, you will see the WRONG parties WITHOUT standing STEAL your home right under your nose, and by the time you realize it, it might be too late! If your property has been foreclosed, use the available options on our package to reverse already foreclosed home and reclaim your most prized possession! You can do it by yourself! START Today — STOP Foreclosure Tomorrow!

If you are a homeowner already in Chapter 13 Bankruptcy and needs to proceed with Adversary Proceeding to challenge the validity of Security Interest or Lien on your home, Our Adversary Proceeding package may be just what you need.

How Home Buyers Can Avoid Traps In Foreclosed Homes

Tags

, , , , , , , ,

While foreclosure activity is dropping in most major cities, there are some metropolises where foreclosed properties still account for too large of a percentage of homes on the market.

Here’s the question for home buyers: Do high-foreclosure markets actually represent an opportunity? Do these cities give buyers a chance to get into city neighborhoods that they otherwise might not be able to afford?

Yes, they do. But buyers have to be careful: Purchasing a home that is in foreclosure can lead to big problems.

Home buyers who want a good deal in real estate invariably think first about buying a foreclosure. They think, sure, I’ll do a little work to get a cheap price. They believe banks are desperate to dump these awful homes, and that’s not true, either.

Some well-meaning buyers have this picture in their mind of a cute little house, surrounded by a white picket fence that is owned by a widowed mom who fell on hard times, but that scenario is generally far from reality. The real picture is often ugly.

The homeowner either abandoned the home or voluntarily deeded the home to the bank. You will hear the term the bank taking the property back, but the bank never owned the property in the first place, so the bank can’t take back something the bank did not own. The bank foreclosed on the mortgage or trust deed and seized the home. There is a difference.

A foreclosure is a home that belongs to the bank, which once belonged to a homeowner.

Sellers stop making payments for a host of reasons. Few choose to go into foreclosure voluntarily. It’s often an unpredictable result from one of the following:

  • Laid-off, fired, or quit job
  • Inability to continue working due to medical conditions
  • Excessive debt and mounting bill obligations
  • Squabbles with co-owner, divorce
  • Job transfer to another state
  • Maintenance issues they can longer afford

During the market crash from 2005 through 2011, many homeowners simply walked away from their homes because the values had fallen and they owed more than their homes were worth. This was not the best solution, in most cases, but it was immediate relief for homeowners.

Negotiating Directly With Sellers in Foreclosure

Investors who specialize in buying foreclosures often prefer to purchase these homes before the foreclosure proceedings are final. Before approaching a seller in distress, consider:

  1. Foreclosure proceedings vary from state to state. In states where mortgages are used, homeowners can end up staying in the property for almost a year; whereas, in states where trust deeds are used, a seller has less than four months before the trustee’s sale.
  2. Almost every state provides for some period of redemption. This means the seller has an irrevocable right during a certain length of time to cure the default, including paying all foreclosure costs, back interest and missed principal payments, to regain control of the property. For more information, consult a real estate lawyer.
  3. Many states also require that buyers give to sellers certain disclosures regarding equity purchases. Failure to provide those notices and to prepare offers on the required paperwork can result in fines, lawsuits or even revocation of sale.
  4. Determine whether you’re the type of person who can easily take advantage of a seller’s misfortune under these circumstances and/or put a family out on the street. Oh, critics will argue it’s just business and sellers deserve what they get, even if it’s five cents on the dollar. Others will feign compassion and trick themselves into believing they are “helping” the homeowners avoid further embarrassment, but deep inside yourself, you know that’s not true.

Buying a Home at the Trustee’s Sale

Check with your local county office to find out how sales in your area are handled, but common denominators among those are:

No loan contingency
Sealed bids
Proof of financial qualifications
Sizable earnest money deposits
Purchase property “as is”

Sometimes buyers are not allowed to inspect the house before making an offer.

WARNING: The problem with buying a house sight unseen is you can’t calculate how much it will cost to improve the structure or bring it up to habitable standards. Nor do you know if the occupant will retaliate and destroy the interior.

On top of that, you may need to evict the tenant or owner from the premises after you receive the title, and eviction processes can be costly.

Another drawback could be liens recorded against the property that will become your problem after title transfer. Some investors who buy at trustee sales pay for a title search in advance to avoid this problem. These guys who show up to bid on the courthouse steps are professionals, and they buy foreclosures at auction as a business. They hope to buy the foreclosure at a low price to make a nice profit when they later flip the home. You do not need to hire a real estate agent to buy a foreclosure at the auction, but you do need to know what you are doing to compete with the pros.

Buying a Foreclosure From the Bank

Many banks do not sell homes directly to investors or home buyers. If a bank is willing to sell homes individually and not in bulk sales, the bank will generally list the home through a real estate agent. There are REO agents who specialize in foreclosure listings.
It is more common to buy a foreclosure directly from the bank in a bulk sale purchase. In bulk sales, the banks will package a bunch of properties into one transaction and sell them all at once to one entity. That is the best way to buy a foreclosure if you can afford it because the discounts are typically the steepest.

Foreclosure Traps to Avoid

You’ll find the lowest prices for foreclosed homes by buying them at auction. But the auction process is also the riskiest way to buy foreclosures. That’s because you won’t have the chance to inspect a foreclosed home beforehand.
Once you get your “bargain” home, you might find that it needs costly repairs that can quickly eat up the savings you thought you’d enjoy. A foreclosed home purchased through auction might also have liens filed against it, such as liens for outstanding tax payments. You might be on the hook for those unpaid taxes, and need to reach a settlement with the IRS.
The best news for buyers is that banks are required to pay off any liens filed against these properties. Buyers can also hire home inspectors to tour the homes before they buy them. These inspectors can help buyers determine how much they’ll need to spend in repairs. Buyers can then calculate whether a particular foreclosure is a bargain or a potential money pit.

A foreclosed home can present a savvy investment opportunity under the right circumstances. Do your homework, and you might just come away with a diamond in the rough.

——————-

When Homeowner’s good faith attempts to amicably work with the Bank in order to resolve the issue fails;

Home owners should wake up TODAY! before it’s too late by mustering enough courage for “Pro Se” Litigation (Self Representation – Do it Yourself) against the Lender – for Mortgage Fraud and other State and Federal law violations using foreclosure defense package found at https://fightforeclosure.net/foreclosure-defense-package/ “Pro Se” litigation will allow Homeowners to preserved their home equity, saves Attorneys fees by doing it “Pro Se” and pursuing a litigation for Mortgage Fraud, Unjust Enrichment, Quiet Title and Slander of Title; among other causes of action. This option allow the homeowner to stay in their home for 3-5 years for FREE without making a red cent in mortgage payment, until the “Pretender Lender” loses a fortune in litigation costs to high priced Attorneys which will force the “Pretender Lender” to early settlement in order to modify the loan; reducing principal and interest in order to arrive at a decent figure of the monthly amount the struggling homeowner could afford to pay.

If you find yourself in an unfortunate situation of losing or about to lose your home to wrongful fraudulent foreclosure, and need a complete package that will show you step-by-step litigation solutions helping you challenge these fraudsters and ultimately saving your home from foreclosure either through loan modification or “Pro Se” litigation visit: https://fightforeclosure.net/foreclosure-defense-package/

If you have received a Notice of Default “NOD”, take a deep breath, as this the time to start the FIGHT! and Protect your EQUITY!

If you do Nothing, you will see the WRONG parties WITHOUT standing STEAL your home right under your nose, and by the time you realize it, it might be too late! If your property has been foreclosed, use the available options on our package to reverse already foreclosed home and reclaim your most prized possession! You can do it by yourself! START Today — STOP Foreclosure Tomorrow!

If you are a homeowner already in Chapter 13 Bankruptcy and needs to proceed with Adversary Proceeding to challenge the validity of Security Interest or Lien on your home, Our Adversary Proceeding package may be just what you need.

How Many Bankruptcies Can a Homeowner File?

Tags

, , , , , , ,

Homeowners often find the need to file for Bankruptcy in order to save their homes. Hopefully, your first bankruptcy filing will be your last, and you’ll be able to start fresh and regain control over your finances. But there are times when people need to file bankruptcy multiple times. For example, a homeowner with serious financial problems may file Bankruptcy not only to save their homes, but equally to protect other assets. Secondly, someone may have a serious medical condition, but can’t get medical insurance. If the medical bills keep piling up, that person may need to file bankruptcy multiple times to get those bills discharged. Homeowners often wonder – how often can we file for bankruptcy?

The Bankruptcy Code does not specify a maximum number of times one can file bankruptcy. Bankruptcy courts are more apt, however, to scrutinize a bankruptcy filing by someone who has already filed previous cases. If the person keeps charging up credit card debt for unnecessary items, the court may dismiss that person’s successive bankruptcy case.

Also, a person may be denied a discharge if he or she received a prior discharge in a previous bankruptcy case. If you file for bankruptcy under Chapter 7, the bankruptcy court may deny your discharge if you already received a discharge in a previous Chapter 7 case filed within eight years of your current case. The court will also deny your Chapter 7 discharge if you previously received one in a Chapter 13 bankruptcy case that you filed within six years of your current case, unless you paid the majority of your creditors in that prior Chapter 13 case. Finally, if you file for bankruptcy under Chapter 13, you’ll be denied a discharge if you received one in a prior Chapter 7 bankruptcy case that was filed within four years of your current case, or in a Chapter 13 case filed within two years of your current case.

There’s a lesson here – if you file for bankruptcy, make sure you do it right, or you may not be able to do it again for a number of years.

Bankruptcy is a federal legal process that consists, at minimum, of filing a court petition, attending credit counseling classes, and meeting with a bankruptcy trustee. In every consumer bankruptcy case there are three categories of fees: (1) bankruptcy filing fees; (2) credit counseling fees; and (3) attorney fees. Filing a bankruptcy case does not have to be expensive or unaffordable. Below are some tips and tricks to keep costs low.

Bankruptcy Filing Fees

Because bankruptcy is a federal legal process, court filing fees are the same throughout the country. For a Chapter 7, an erase-your-debts-start-fresh bankruptcy case, the filing fee is $306. For a Chapter 13, a repayment plan, the filing fee is $281. These fees must be paid to the clerk of the court upon filing. However, with the court’s permission individual debtors may pay in installments. The final payment cannot be later than 120 days after you file the petition. In some rare cases the filing fee may be waived altogether for debtors who earn less than 150% of the poverty level. Bankruptcy filing fees are the same whether a debtor files a single or joint husband and wife bankruptcy.

Credit Counseling and Financial Management Courses

The federal Bankruptcy Code requires each consumer debtor to receive credit counseling from a nonprofit budget and credit counseling agency approved by the United States Trustee within 180 days prior to filing a bankruptcy. This counseling fee is around $50.00 per household and is available in-person, by telephone, or over the internet. After filing, the debtor must complete an “instructional course concerning personal financial management.” This class is also available in-person, by telephone, or over the internet for a fee around $50.00 per filer.

The Bankruptcy Code directs approved providers of the credit counseling and financial management courses to provide services without regard to your ability to pay. If you can’t afford the counseling, the agency may waive the fee or require you to pay a lesser amount.

Attorney Fees

Attorney fees are negotiated between the debtor and the attorney. Attorney fees are paid up-front in Chapter 7 cases. In Chapter 13 cases, the attorney may elect to receive attorney fees in equal monthly installments. The attorney is paid from the debtor’s monthly payment to the trustee, and makes the entire process more affordable. A few not-for-profit agencies and private attorneys provide free bankruptcy representation to indigent individuals.

If you are in need of debt relief, but are afraid that you cannot afford the bankruptcy fees, speak with an experienced bankruptcy attorney and discuss your options. There are strategies that you and your attorney can employ to make the process fit your budget.

How Much Debt Do I Need To File Bankruptcy

There is no qualifying minimum debt limit for an individual bankruptcy in most States. Debtors who otherwise qualify for Chapter 7 bankruptcy can file with any amount of secured or unsecured debt. The purpose of a Chapter 7 bankruptcy is to provide the debtor a fresh start without the burden of overwhelming debt. In some cases this debt may be objectively very small (perhaps only a few thousand dollars), but it be relatively very large to a person on a fixed income from retirement, disability, or otherwise.

In cases where the amount of dis-chargeable debt is objectively small, both the bankruptcy attorney and the client should take care to consider all of the consequences of filing. First, bankruptcy is not cheap. There is a court filing fee, a credit counseling fee, a personal financial management course fee, and, of course, your attorney’s fees. In some extreme cases some or all of these fees may be waived. Second, a bankruptcy filing can significantly impair the debtor’s ability to borrow money and obtain credit, at least for the short term. Finally, non-exempt property may be at risk. For many poor debtors, these consequences have little, if any, affect. Many poor debtors seek bankruptcy protection simply to rid themselves of the nuisance of debt collection.

While there is no minimum amount of debt required to file a Chapter 13 bankruptcy, the bankruptcy laws set a ceiling on the amount of secured and unsecured debt a person can have in a Chapter 13 case. These limits as of April 1, 2010 are $1,081,400 for secured debt and $360,475 for unsecured debt. The Chapter 13 debt limits adjust every three years. Cases that exceed these limits are ineligible for Chapter 13 bankruptcy, but may qualify under Chapters 7 or 11. There is currently some confusion in our courts as to how these debt limits apply in a joint husband and wife Chapter 13 case. Some courts will separately consider debt that is individual and not joint, effectively increasing the Chapter 13 limits.

An experienced bankruptcy attorney can evaluate your case and discuss any issues surrounding your case. Whatever the amount of your debt, if you are unable to pay, the federal bankruptcy laws can offer you substantial relief. Speak with an experienced bankruptcy attorney and discover how the federal bankruptcy laws can help you.

If you are experiencing financial difficulty and are considering bankruptcy, discuss your case with an experienced bankruptcy attorney.

If you are a homeowner already in Chapter 13 Bankruptcy and needs to proceed with Adversary Proceeding to challenge the validity of Security Interest or Lien on your home, Our Adversary Proceeding package may be just what you need.

When Homeowner’s good faith attempts to amicably work with the Bank in order to resolve the issue fails;

Home owners should wake up TODAY! before it’s too late by mustering enough courage for “Pro Se” Litigation (Self Representation – Do it Yourself) against the Lender – for Mortgage Fraud and other State and Federal law violations using foreclosure defense package found at https://fightforeclosure.net/foreclosure-defense-package/ “Pro Se” litigation will allow Homeowners to preserved their home equity, saves Attorneys fees by doing it “Pro Se” and pursuing a litigation for Mortgage Fraud, Unjust Enrichment, Quiet Title and Slander of Title; among other causes of action. This option allow the homeowner to stay in their home for 3-5 years for FREE without making a red cent in mortgage payment, until the “Pretender Lender” loses a fortune in litigation costs to high priced Attorneys which will force the “Pretender Lender” to early settlement in order to modify the loan; reducing principal and interest in order to arrive at a decent figure of the monthly amount the struggling homeowner could afford to pay.

If you find yourself in an unfortunate situation of losing or about to lose your home to wrongful fraudulent foreclosure, and need a complete package that will show you step-by-step litigation solutions helping you challenge these fraudsters and ultimately saving your home from foreclosure either through loan modification or “Pro Se” litigation visit: https://fightforeclosure.net/foreclosure-defense-package/

If you have received a Notice of Default “NOD”, take a deep breath, as this the time to start the FIGHT! and Protect your EQUITY!

If you do Nothing, you will see the WRONG parties WITHOUT standing STEAL your home right under your nose, and by the time you realize it, it might be too late! If your property has been foreclosed, use the available options on our package to reverse already foreclosed home and reclaim your most prized possession! You can do it by yourself! START Today — STOP Foreclosure Tomorrow!