Business, Loan, Loan servicing, Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, RESPA, Title 12 of the United States Code, United States Code, United States Congress
The Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA), was an act passed by the United States Congress in 1974. It is codified at Title 12, Chapter 27 of the United States Code, 12 U.S.C. §§ 2601–2617
RESPA is a consumer protection statute that regulates the real estate settlement process, including servicing of loans and assignment of those loans. See 12 U.S.C. § 2601 (Congressional findings). The statute imposes a number of duties on lenders and loan servicers. Most relevant here are there requirements that borrowers be given notice by both transferor and transferee when their loan is transferred to a new lender or servicer, 12 U.S.C. §§ 2605(b) and (c), and that loan servicers respond promptly to borrowers’ written requests for information, § 2605(e).
The details of the requirement for responding to written requests will become relevant here. First, it takes a “qualified written request” to trigger the loan servicer’s duties under RESPA to acknowledge and respond. The statute defines a qualified written request as written correspondence (other than notices on a payment coupon or similar documents) from the borrower or her agent that requests information or states reasons for the borrower’s belief that the account is in error. 12U.S.C. § 2605(e)(1)(B). To qualify, the written request must also include the name and account of the borrower or must enable the servicer to identify them.
Within 60 days after receiving a qualified written re-quest, the servicer must take one of three actions: either(1) make appropriate corrections to the borrower’s account and notify the borrower in writing of the corrections; (2) investigate the borrower’s account and pro-vide the borrower with a written clarification as to why the servicer believes the borrower’s account to be correct; or (3) investigate the borrower’s account and either provide the requested information or provide an explanation as to why the requested information is unavailable. See 12 U.S.C. §§ 2605(e)(2)(A), (B), and (C). No matter which action the servicer takes, the servicer must provide a name and telephone number of a representative of the servicer who can assist the borrower.
During the 60-day period after a servicer receives a qualified written request relating to a dispute regarding the borrower’s payments, “a servicer may not provide information regarding any overdue payment, owed by such borrower and relating to such period or qualified written request, to any consumer reporting agency.” 12 U.S.C. § 2605(e)(3).
RESPA provides for a private right of action for violations of its requirements. 12 U.S.C. § 2605(f). The provision for a private right of action includes a “safe harbor” provision, which provides in relevant part that a transferee service provider like any lender shall not be liable for a violation of section 2605 if, “within60 days after discovering an error (whether pursuant to a final written examination report or the servicer’s own procedures) and before the commencement of an action under this subsection and the receipt of written notice of the error from the borrower, the servicer notifies the person concerned of the error and makes whatever adjustments are necessary in the appropriate account to ensure that the person will not be required to pay an amount in excess of any amount that the person otherwise would have paid.” 12 U.S.C. § 2605(f)(4).
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